What to do with the main feed raw materials this autumn

Volodymyr Yaroshenko, independent consultant of compound feed industry, professor of Uman national University of Horticulture

Nowadays the situation with crop storage is ambiguous: for example, for early crops it is very favourable while for corn and sunflower it is disastrous. How it influences the feed production, what dangers to wait for and how to avoid them —the article will give you the answers.

Early crops

Present conditions of growing and gathering of early crops (wheat and barley of new harvest) weren’t very favourable for their storage. The crops is put in farms’ depositaries with 13% humidity and even less, that make conditions for its long and quality storage.

However, there are single accidents of high Fusarium seeds content. If your plant receives a lot of grain containing Fusarium seeds over the standard, we advise you not to refuse it. The widespread method is a separate storage of such grain lots and putting them into processing with the seeds favourable on this criteria. Fusarium seeds content in such a mixture should be less than feasible constraint.


At the moment of writting of this article more than half of fields under sunflower were unharvested and farm machinery could work only for2–3days per week because of frequent rains. It is clear that because of field losses Ukraine won’t reach the planned sunflower seeds overturn by at least10–15%.

Lack of sufficient quantity of raw materials in small processors force them to process sunflower seeds coming directly from the fields. They are deficiently cleaned and with increased moisture after deficient time of postharvest ripeness. Usually, the sunflower cake made of such raw materials has increased residual oil content.


It is a lowly craft to predict how much soya will be gathered this autumn. Will it be possible to gather it all? Won’t the part of areas be covered by snow?

However, at the present moment the soya bean cake quality raise concerns. We’ve partially covered this item in № 1 (13), 2013. At the present moment we need to wait for price reduction and top-level rivalry because of the beginning of new processing season and big raw material amount. Though September rains stopped the raw material coming to processors causing some of them to stop after a short start, in future we should expect excess supply and price dumping. In such conditions, feed producers should be very attentive to soya bean products quality. Lots from several processors, who consciously falsify soya bean cake, have been noticed a lot of times on our market. Such products do not correspond to nutrient indexes for this product and even can harm animals. It is not a horror story, but our reality!

Except falsifications feed producers should be ready to the appearance of low-quality soya bean products in later periods. This can be caused by the weather poor for ripening and gathering of this crop. If the weather won’t help farmers, there is a great possibility of damaged soya beans coming to processor in November and even December. Products made of such beans may appear in winter and spring months.


The present harvest reason of this crop (as soya and sunflower) starts with a delay because of longstanding rainfalls in September. That way, the corn gathering season was postponed for about twenty days. Agrarians will hurry to gather firstly sunflower and soya as more expensive crops.

In most previous years, Ukrainian corn quality was at a high-level in spite of the fact that we grow it on the northern border of commercial production. The explanation is our postharvest drying technology. Bigger sizes of Ukrainian farm units, in comparison with European ones, and powerful drying complexes allow us to dry the corn seeds to traditional Ukrainian 14% humidity. In Europe, the basic corn seeds amount (and not only) is cultivated by small farms that don’t dry at all. That’s why Europeans check the seeds for mycotoxines so carefully and widely use antitoxic substances.

Usually in Ukraine, the situation with mycotoxines is much better, but in light of last weather metamorphosis everything can change for the worse in current marketing year. Wait and see. Every fair day will add the optimism and every rainy one — vise versa.

  1. How do the longstanding rainfalls impact the crop quality? What are the maximum permissible limits of damaged seeds in lots?
  2. How to save the grain lots with the overstated Fusarium content?
  3. Weather conditions essentially impact the feeding crops gathering terms, from top to bottom ruining agrarians’ plans. What should we expect of prices on sunflower and products of its processing (meal and cake)?
  4. What are the dangers of wrong sunflower storage for pigs’ health?
  5. The new soya bean forgery — corn—lupine pressed mixture appears on the market. How these counterfeit products can be dangerous for livestock? How to differentiate the soya cake and a forgery?

You can find answers for these and other questions in the full version of the article in the magazine «Profitable Pig Production», № 5 (17) 2013.

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